heuristics (not biases), rules of thumb, mental shortcuts, strategies ignoring information
Hansjörg Neth, Gerd Gigerenzer
We distinguish between situations of risk, where all options, consequences, and probabilities are known, and situations of uncertainty, where they are not. Probability theory and statistics are the best tools for deciding under risk but not under uncertainty, which characterizes most relevant problems that humans have to solve. Uncertainty requires simple heuristics that are robust rather than optimal.
Abstract: Datenintensive und immer detailliertere Analysen sind nicht immer die richtige Antwort auf die zunehmende Komplexität in der Unternehmenssteuerung. Unter Unsicherheit sind einfache Heuristiken, nach denen wir Informationen selektieren oder ignorieren, oft zielführender. Der mündige Controller verharrt nicht in den rationalen Reflexen des Homo oeconomicus. Er entstammt der Spezies des Homo heuristicus.
Abstract: What — if anything — can psychology and decision science contribute to risk management in financial institutions? The turmoils of recent economic crises undermine the assumptions of classical economic models and threaten to dethrone Homo oeconomicus, who aims to make decisions by weighing and integrating all available information. But rather than proposing to replace the rational actor model with some notion of biased, fundamentally flawed and irrational agents, we advocate the alternative notion of Homo heuristicus, who uses simple, but ecologically rational strategies to make sound and robust decisions. Based on the conceptual distinction between risky and uncertain environments this paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence that boundedly rational agents prefer simple heuristics over more flexible models. We provide examples of successful heuristics, explain when and why heuristics work well, and illustrate these insights with a fast and frugal decision tree that helps to identify fragile banks. We conclude that all members of the financial community will benefit from simpler and more transparent products and regulations.